Introduction to Macro-Astrology
©Copyright Terry MacKinnell 1994, 2002 All Rights Reserved

Note: This historical introduction is extracted from Research Notes on Macro-Astrology Part 1 The Rectification of the Aquarian Age published as a booklet in 1994. It is historical in the sense that it is orientated towards historical influences on the development of our understanding of the precessional ages and that it is my first published introduction to macro-astrology. It also refers to historical events to rectify the sub-ages of the precessional ages. Though sub-ages may average 179 years each, the following dates are based on more accurate periods so each sub-age will slightly vary from this 179 years length.


The basis of the following approach to the precessional ages is based upon rectification. As a technique to rectify the start of the Aquarian Age, I decided initially to examine the 2nd Millennium AD only, and restrict myself to these 179-year sub-ages. It must be assumed that if sub-ages actually exist, and are only 179 years long, the likelihood of inaccurately estimating the start of one of these sub-ages will be far less than estimating the start of a 2,148-year age. It is plausible that the error would be reduced some twelve-fold.

Pisces Aries 1088AD
Pisces 1268
Aquarius Capricorn 1447
Sagittarius 1626
Scorpio 1805
Libra 1979

If this rectification is correct, then all of the above sub-ages should clearly and decisively correspond to historical periods. Allowance can be made that events applying to a sign can appear after the actual sub-age due to the Overflow Effect or Principle. All the sub-ages must be examined to see if each supports the premise of the Aquarian Age commencing in or around 1472 AD.

ARIES SUB-AGE (c.1088-1268)

Initially I found this Sub-Age of Aries started too early to correspond with the Renaissance, which is known to have begun around 1300 in Italy. However history books regularly state that developments in the preceding 200 years (1100 - 1300) were instrumental in the observable change labeled the Renaissance. The mid 1100's saw an urban renaissance in Europe unlike anything seen since Roman times with the construction of new public and private buildings. This coupled with the transfer of intellectual life from monasteries to new city universities laid the groundwork for the monumental advancements made in the Renaissance period itself.

The artistic impetus for the Renaissance is attributed to the Italian, Giotto (c.1266-1337), considered to be the founder of modern painting. Until the Renaissance, paintings were two dimensional, ie., without depth, life, and realism. Renaissance art replaced these flat images with realistic three-dimensional images. The work of Dante (c.1265-1321), founder of contemporary Italian literature, also emerged out of the cultural Renaissance. These two momentous developments in art and literature reflected a far more extensive change in outlook.

The Renaissance was a time of such profound change that it was even recognised as such in its own day. The rapid rate of change and development in every area of art and learning was self-evident. Significantly, Roman engineering methods came under scrutiny - engineering being ruled by Aries. Aries is a male sign that also indicates youth. Renaissance artists delighted in portraying youths and the majesty of mankind in general. This reflects the Aries "I am" attitude. Renaissance writers removed man from being wretched and burdened with original sin, and therefore needing to worship God, to praising man's glory as separate from God. This egocentricity meant writers included in their works emotional and intellectual self-portraits, qualities missing from literature for well over a thousand years.

Aries, a fire sign indicating activity, prodded individuals to a full active life, rather than a reclusive monastic (Piscean) existence. The Renaissance under the Aries Sub-Age rang the death knell for the cloistered environment as the intellectual centrepiece of society. The replacement of ecclesiastical studies with classical studies of Greek and Roman writers and artists was given the name `Humanism'. Petrarch was crowned poet laureate in Rome in 1341 and is considered the first great humanist. Greek literature was introduced to the University of Florence in 1397. Trade also experienced a new impetus in the Renaissance. It was Renaissance Italy that prototyped trade into modern capitalism - linking industry, external trade and banks.

Aries' other main focus, is that of military affairs, as Aries is ruled by Mars, the god of war. The Aries Sub-Age (proper) saw in China the use of gunpowder for military purposes, and by the end of the 13th Century, gunpowder had made its way to Europe. This was the most profound military technological breakthrough experienced thus far.

Naturally no Aries period could be complete without a major military exploit. The military marvel of the millennium, Genghis Khan (c.1162-1227) "Conqueror of the World", and his dynasty to Khubilai Khan (1260-1368) conquered China, West Turkestan, Afghanistan, Northern India, Manchuria Russia, Tibet, Persia, Mesopotamia, Korea and made conquests in Cambodia, Burma and Viet Nam in the east, and to the gates of Venice in the west before retreating for internal political reasons. It is again worth noting that the Mongol invasion, affecting most of the Eurasian land mass, is an unambiguous Aries phenomena that occurred during most of the 13th Century, and within the Aries Sub-Age proper. The Mongols were not to be treated lightly.

It is also to be expected that warfare was the order of the day in the Aries Sub-Age Overflow. The Hundred Years' War (1340-1453) resulted in some of the famous historical battles between England and France, including: Agincourt and the liberation of Orleans lead by Joan of Arc. Even the `ideal' woman of this period wore armour and fought in wars. Such is the martial strength and influence of Aries.

The image of the Renaissance from history books is one of a clenched first thrusting out of the pages. It was a time of energy, activity, development and warfare. The home of the Renaissance - Italy, was also racked with warfare simultaneous to its cultural leap. The military exploits of the Mongels were exceptional, and the cultural developments are in marked contrast to the cloistered and medieval culture that the Renaissance usurped.

PISCEAN SUB-AGE (c.1268-1447)

The Sub-Age of Pisces starting in 1268 naturally placed a large focus on Neptune's domain, the oceans. Henry the Navigator opened the worlds first navigational school and planned the circumnavigation of Africa in the early 1400's. An expedition headed for the Canary Islands in 1402. The Madeiras were subsequently discovered in 1419, followed by the Azores in 1445. In the Piscean Sub-Age Overflow (which was also the very beginning of the world's entry into the Aquraian Age), Colombus discovered the Americas (1492) which was appropriately called the New World marking the start of the New Age. By 1498 Vasco da Gama had reached India.

It is worth noting that Pisces also rules fantasy and deceit, and until the world was circumnavigated, there was an intrinsic terror associated with nautical exploration. The overriding fantasy was that the world was flat and the edge would be encountered with terrifying results - a drop over the waterfall into infinity. Also at this time in history, explorers often returned with fanciful accounts of the lands they discovered and the things they found there. This combines a number of Piscean attributes: endings, self-made problems, and outright delusion.

This period would be incomplete without a mention of Pisces' natural rulership of chaos, obscure diseases, devastation and suffering, characteristics of the Black Death that swept Europe in the mid 1300's. The Black Death, a bubonic plague that attacks the glands, is traditionally attributed to Scorpio. Nevertheless the glands unequivocally come under Pisces' rulership, and the outcome of the plague had definite Piscean qualities.

At least one quarter of Europe's population is believed to have perished from the Black Death. This calamity is unparalleled to this day. The spread of bubonic plague is attributed to infected fleas on rats. The required medium is filth and uncleanliness. Pisces opposite sign is Virgo which rules cleanliness. Pisces is not strong on cleanliness.

The previous Aries Sub-Age brought new energy in the form of the Renaissance. But then the turn of the wheel next passed through Pisces of endings and stagnation, pulling the plug on Aries. This is exactly what happened. Between the late 1200's until the mid 1400's western economic life became depressed. The Black Plague, not the sole source of the depression, greatly exacerbated the situation, and the pace of development experienced under active Aries was not again experienced until the Industrial Revolution, which incidentally, came with another Fire (activity) sub-age - the Sagittarian Sub-Age.

According to traditional astrological texts it is considered that Europe is ruled by Pisces. The Piscean Age came to an end with the close of the Piscean Sub-Age. It is reasonable to assume that this period marks a peak of Piscean influence, with its overflow strongly affecting life on Earth possibly to around 3600 AD.

The close of the Piscean Age saw Europe poised to dominate the world over the succeeding centuries. It must be remembered that at this time in history China eclipsed the might of Europe in resources, exploration and achievements. The Arabs were superior in mathematics and the sciences, and had just demolished the lasted vestiges of the Eastern Roman Empire with the fall of Constantinople in 1453 AD, a big blow to western (European) civilisation. Europe was just another culture on the Eurasian land mass.

Pisces is a dual sign symbolised by two fish. Simply translated this would mean splits, schisms and contradictory energies would manifest. Within the Piscean Sub-Age, Europe ceased to function as separate independent societies, isolated by distance and culture, and commenced to be unilaterally affected by events that affected the whole of Europe. The late 1300's saw simultaneous social upheavals in Italy, France and England and the start of the Great Schism (1378 - 1417). The Great Schism saw two Popes, one in Avignon, the other in Rome, with European states aligned to one or the other.

This schism was a minor prelude to the Reformation that hit Europe in the following century. The greatest and longest lasting split to affect Europe was based on Piscean religious grounds and commenced in the Piscean Sub-Age Overflow with the influence of Martin Luther of Germany in the early 1500's, and Britain's Henry VIII's desire for divorce in the mid 1500's. The philosophical basis was inaugurated with Martin Luther's distaste for corruption within the Catholic Church, and corruption of the faith by the Catholic Church. Henry VIII just wanted another wife and the Pope would not give him a divorce. Henry just took matters into his own hands.

In 1536, John Calvin wrote "Institutes of the Christian Religion" providing the basis of Protestantism. By 1546, upon Luther's death, Lutherism and Protestantism controlled most of Germany, Sweden, Norway Denmark, Finland, Prussia, the Baltic states and England. To this was added Scotland in 1567. Again, Pisces' concentration on spiritual matters dominates the field of action. The duality in Pisces-ruled Europe meant that at its embryonic lurch to stardom, it was divided into two: Catholic versus Protestants. This resulted in the Wars of Religion, including the Spanish Armada, that disguised different grievances but were ignited by religious passion. It still continues today in Northern Ireland.

Naturally enough, other developments under Pisces extend into the following Capricorn Sub-Age (proper) and the new Aquarian Age. Two of the most notable writers coming under the spell of Pisces would have to be Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra and William Shakespeare. Cervantes wrote Don Quixote between 1602 and 1615. The deep sense of feeling, almost spirituality, that permeated works of art in the Pisces Sub-Age proper and the Overflow, continues to impress to this day. Shakespeare and Cervantes were not alone at the cultural helm.

No less equal are Michelangelo and Leonardo Da Vinci. Michelangelo, sculptor, painter, architect and even military engineer and poet made his name in the first half of the 1500's. His most famous work is perhaps `David' (1501-4) which reflects the Aries Renaissance obsession with young men. In Michelangelo's work can be seen the energy and enthusiasm of the Aries Renaissance and the feeling and aesthetic appreciation inherent within Pisces.

Leonardo Da Vinci, painter, sculptor, engineer, architect and scientist was first known for his engineering work. Aries' constructive side rules engineering, and a greater appreciation of engineering developed during the Renaissance. He is best known for his paintings, "Mona Lisa" (1503-7) and "The Last Supper" completed in 1498 and reflected the Piscean spiritual quality of the time.

Concentration on spiritual or mystical matters associated with the three water signs, and Pisces in particular, meant a greater than normal evidence of unreal and mystical events. An inordinate number of mystics made their appearance with Pisces, mainly in its overflow. Theresa of Avila, a Spanish nun, wrote poetry and notes on mystical theology, as did Kabir, a 15th Century Indian mystic, author of "The Weaver of God's Name".

The most famous mystic of the time was Nostrodamus, a prophetic astrologer who published his "Centuries" in 1555, clearly in the Piscean Sub-Age Overflow. His technique appears to be related more to clairvoyance (Piscean), with planets posited in astrological signs a technique of timing, rather than a technique of astrology. Nostrodamus' "Centuries", conforming to Piscean values, is vague and confusing. However some of Nostrodamus' predictions are incredibly lucid and clear after the event and indicate that, astrologer or not, he had skill in his craft.

From around 1450 and for the next 200 years (the end of the Piscean Sub-Age proper and into its overflow) history books state thousands of people, mainly women, were executed for witchcraft throughout Europe. Nancy Qualls-Corbett in "The Sacred Prostitute" states "an estimated six to nine million people were executed during this time, eighty-five percent of them women". The North American colonies also made witchcraft punishable by death in 1642. So great was the obsession with witchcraft that in Salem, Massachusetts in 1692 nearly all women were branded witches. The line between religion, insanity and delusion is obviously very thin, and all come within the orbit of Pisces.

Pisces also takes rulership over large organisations, bureaucracies, and slavery which flourished in the Piscean Overflow. These large organisations typically where state or private monopolies, also linked to Pisces. Such organisations and monopolies included, the King of Portugal's spice monopoly 1506; Muscovy Company 1554; British Company of the Levant 1581; British East India Company 1600; Dutch East India Company 1602; Dutch West Indies Company; Company of One Hundred Associates 1627; French West Indies Company and French East Indies Company 1664; French North Company 1669; Guinea Slave Trade Company 1685; China Company 1698; and Saint-Dominique Slave Trade Company 1698 (Saint Dominique must have turned in his grave at this). The beginning of the Piscean Sub-Age Overflow saw the start of the African slave trade to the Americas in 1542. By 1620, the slave trade was extended to English colonies, and the French jumped on the bandwagon in 1636.

The influence of the Piscean Sub-Age is readily explainable with this rectification. The key difference unleashed by Pisces compared to the previous Aries Sub-Age is the pronounced spiritual or mystical aspect, plus extensive development of maritime skills and the catastrophic effect of the Bubonic Plague. Pisces is the sign of endings, and the Piscean Sub-Age and Overflow saw the last pre-modern historical period before science and technology appeared, sending mysticism and spirituality scurrying for cover before the opening of the floodgates of rationality. The religious schisms of the Piscean Sub-Age clearly identifies the Piscean nature of social developments that followed quickly on the heels of the Aries-inspired Renaissance.

CAPRICORN SUB-AGE (c.1447-1626)

The Capricorn Sub-Age and start of the Aquarian Age (c.1447) predated the Scientific Revolution in classical science, physics and mathematics, nominally showed its results by the early 1600's. The surge in scientific discoveries followed the appearance of empiricism and rationalism (logical deduction), home turf for Capricorn. Technology finds its roots in the Capricorn Sub-Age.

Technology is not fathered solely by Capricorn. This Capricorn Sub-Age also marks the start of the new Age of Aquarius, the sign of innovation and ingenuity. The innovation of Aquarius combined with the logic and pragmatism of Capricorn created a recipe for unprecedented scientific advance.

Politically, it is to be expected that the Capricorn Sub-Age would bring capable government but also conservatism. Revolutions are not appreciated by those in authority. The Reformation was a revolution based on religious inspiration, that was pushed into the Capricorn Sub-Age from the Piscean Sub-Age. The Reformation was quickly incorporated into the state, before it got out of control. Protestantism became conservative and under state and/or royal control and thus did not align itself with the grievances of the peasants or lower class. This was entirely acceptable to the ruling classes, and as an extra benefit, they got rid of the Pope.

It must be remembered that the Catholic Church was as much a political or state body as a religious body at this stage in history. In this context, the reaction by the Catholic Church to Lutherism and Protestantism, was one of war, persecution and obstruction. Capricorn demands respect and authority, and the Catholic Church did everything it could to restore authority and respect within Europe, an area it considered it had hegemony. The Congregation of Cardinals of the Holy Inquisition was established in 1542, to subdue opposition within territories ruled by Catholic authorities. Either way, conservative state forces or conservative Church forces firmly held the day.

Chronometer, the scientific name for a maritime clock, gets its name from the Greek word Cronus, as does chronological, chronicles and chronic. The Greek god Cronus was called Saturn by the Romans. Cronus, or Saturn, was the ruler of time, the passage of time and old age. He is the grim reaper that appears at the end of each old year, before the new year is ushered in. Cronus, resurrected as Saturn, is the traditional ruler of Capricorn. It is appropriate that matters of time were dealt with in a Capricorn period.

Magellan discovered, upon being the first to circumnavigate the world, that his calendar was out by a day on his return to port. The International Date Line did not exist in the 16th Century. Time and calendars are Capricorn matters, and attention was given to both time and the calendar in the Capricorn Sub-Age. The modern year was established in 1582, and as a coincidence, the new Gregorian calendar changed the start of the year from March 25th (near the vernal equinox and start of the first sign Aries) to January 1st, in the sign of Capricorn!

The rapid development in classical science also continued to fare well in this new arrangement. With the Capricorn Sub-Age controlling 1492 to 1670, the scientific advance, which soon accelerated, was kicked off with Copernicus and his proposal of the heliocentric (sun-based) solar system, published in 1543. Western civilisation finally caught up with the ancient Greeks. The first observatory was constructed at the end of the 16th Century.

The invention of the microscope in 1590 and the telescope around 1605, was followed by an avalanche of scientific discoveries in mathematics, physics, biology and chemistry. It was the first modern golden age of science, and in reality continues to this day, though some say the gloss is wearing thin. The leading players and their recorded achievements are Copernicus and his "On The Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres" in 1543; Bacon with "The Advancement of Learning" in 1605 and "Novum Organum" in 1620; Kepler's "On The Motion Of Mars" in 1609; Galileo's "Dialogues on the Two Chief Systems of the World" in 1632; Descartes' "Discourse on Method" in 1637; and Newton's "Principia Mathematic" in 1687.

A fascinating example of macro-astrology involves the achievements of Leonardo da Vinci. Within only 30 years of the start of the new Capricorn Sub-Age and the Age of Aquarius (both nominally commencing 1472), and preceding the Scientific Revolution by a century, Leonardo was designing airplanes, armoured tanks, town planning techniques, drainage and irrigation, and submarines to name but a few. His Aquarian leanings did not prevent his Piscean artistic expression. Leonardo appeared to have one leg in the Pisces Age and the other leg in the Aquarian Age.

Following the Capricorn Sub-Age (proper), the Overflow saw Capricorn principles continue and flourish. A major political shift in influence occurred in Europe with the rise of Great Britain, France, Russia, Austria and Prussia with a strong central authority sympathetic to the political model of the French king, Louis XIV - dominating.

Capricorn, the sign of conservatism, administration and respect for authority, admires strong leaders. Louis XIV satisfied Capricorn's demands. The success in this period of various states in Europe depended greatly on the strength and skills of their monarchs. The 1700's saw a continuation of traditional and conservative society. The hierarchical nature of social rank and position, fondly caressed by Capricorn, became even more entrenched.

The period of Classical music is stated to be 1750 to the early 1800's - well into the Capricorn Sub-Age Overflow. Like art, Classical music was a reaction to Piscean mysticism evidenced in Baroque music. What was called for was clarity and even a severity of form, both Capricorn traits. Whereas Classical and Baroque art intertwined, Baroque music preceded Classical music.

The environment for classical musicians was now different. Instead of patronage by the (Piscean) Church, it was now patronage by the (Capricorn) aristocracy and therefore music tended to satisfy their wants. The renowned musicians of the Classical era were Philipp and Emmanual Bach, Haydn, Gluck, Mozart and the early works of Beethoven. Other achievements of the classical period include the virtuoso symphony orchestra, the piano, and the maturation of the string quartet.

Many of the achievements of today's western society can be sourced to the Calvanist approach to life, developed under the auspices of Capricorn. John Calvin, was instrumental in the formation of the Protestant work ethic and the harsh, even austere approach to life - the fire and brimstone style that the English and the Scots most responded to, and the Puritans took with them to America - setting the style for the contemporary American conservative `moral majority'.

The Capricorn Sub-Age (c.1472-1650) and Overflow (c.1651-1829) again, like the earlier sub-ages, displays its unmistakable stamp at an appropriate place in history. Its effects are seen in government, the arts, religion and especially science. The distinct progression from the Piscean world of Elizabethan England and Shakespeare, the maritime explorers to Newton, Galileo and their scientific contemporaries, and the severe environment of the Puritans is readily seen despite the overlapping and fusion of Piscean and Capricorn energies that transpired in the Capricorn Sub-Age.


The Industrial Revolution starting in the 1770's suits the expansionist quality of Sagittarius. The Industrial Revolution meant that more could be produced with less effort. This lead to mass production and rapidly rising standards of living. An agricultural revolution also emerged in England in the early 1700's.

The revolution in agriculture and industry led to a European population explosion. The 1700's saw a 40% growth in world population, compared to an estimated 18% for the preceding century, a sharp rise, and to be expected with expansionist Sagittarius. The 1800's saw an even larger increase (71%) and it is a foregone conclusion that in the 20th Century this trend has continued in the Sagittarian Sub-Age Overflow.

The Industrial Revolution resulted eventually in raising the living standards of the majority of Europeans. Sagittarius is considered to bring the grace of the gods, and for Europeans in general, the Sagittarian Sub-Age did just that. The Industrial Revolution continued the process of the agricultural revolution by replacing mainly rural based cottage industries with large factories. The Industrial Revolution utilised the scientific advances precipitated by the previous Sub-Age of Capricorn, and in many ways these revolutions can be viewed as the confluence of Capricorn and Sagittarius.

Extending this idea of confluence, the most important technological advance of the Industrial Revolution was seen in 1803 when steam was used to power vehicles. The first passenger trains in 1825 heralded the fossil-energy revolution. Coal as a fuel source graphically illustrates both Capricorn and Sagittarius. Coal is unambiguously ruled by Capricorn, and Sagittarius is a fire sign.

The network of iron railway lines and train services that followed provided a backbone (Capricorn) for nations' infrastructures, made long distance travel (Sagittarius) easier plus significantly contributed to the explosion of affluence (Sagittarius) that followed.

The Age of Enlightenment is also well placed in the Sub-Age of Sagittarius. The Enlightenment was the birth of modern liberal thinking, with Voltaire followed by Rousseau being the most notable proponents. The European Enlightenment is considered to have precipitated in America the quest for life, liberty and the pursuit of justice. Sagittarius, the sign of the sage and philosophy, is readily seen in the Enlightenment.

The centre for Enlightened thought was Paris, the thought-factory in an era when French was the language of civilised society, and everyone read the same books. Books were the medium of the day, in the same way that movies, television, videos and computer information technology are today. The medium of books provided a constant written political debate amongst the intelligentsia. Readers became used to debate and analysis of contradicting opinions. Such a scenario had not been seen since the Reformation.

By the end of the 1700's, the Enlightenment was replaced by the period of Romanticism. Immanuel Kant was the most famous of the Romantic philosophers. He published "The Critique of Pure Reason" in 1781 and "The Critique of Practical Reason" in 1788. Basically he stated that everything could not be reduced to pure (Capricorn) logic. There existed more to reality than deduction: imagination, feeling and intuition could also provide answers, and transcend mental understanding. Spanning the end of the Sagittarian Sub-Age and start of the new Scorpio Sub-Age, but definitely remaining within the Sagittarian stable and Romantic period, was Victor Hugo, greatest of the French romanticists and most remembered for "Les Miserable".

Based on the observation of the Overflow Principle from the previous sub-ages, it follows that the world has remained under the influence of Sagittarius up to the end of the 20th Century. This situation is readily perceived, as the world has continued in overdrive. Population increases, production, and technological advances have continued at a breathtaking rate.

Furthermore, the association between the Sagittarian Sub-Age and the extreme military madness that gripped Europe from the time of Napoleon until the Second World War must be mentioned. This possible connection will probably be seen more objectively some centuries or even a millennia down the track, but nevertheless, I have noted that astrological periods of the same element share many qualities. Any Fire period (Aries, Leo or Sagittarius) indicates a tendency for war, though Aries is the most pronounced.

Napoleon, in 1812, near the end of the Sagittarian Sub-Age (proper), was at the height of his impressive but short-lived conquests. This militaristic period I attribute to the Fire in Sagittarius, even though Napoleon was not so fierce an example of Fire compared the military might of the Mongels' conquests in the last Fire period - The Sub-Age of Aries, the pre-imminent war sign.

The very real and unprecedented expansionary phase that gripped the world, first in 18th Century Europe, and then progressively throughout the rest of the world and into the 19th and 20th Centuries, coincides with the corresponding sign of Sagittarius. The liberalism engendered by Sagittarius propelled the middle class into positions previously monopolised by the (Capricorn) aristocracy. The philosophical outlook of this period resulted in the appearance of some of the most influential intellectuals of modern times, again appropriate for sagacious Sagittarius. This Sagittarian trend clearly followed the distinctly Capricorn period that preceded it.

SCORPIO SUB-AGE (c.1805-1979)

The Scorpio Sub-Age could be the most difficult to sub-age to perceive because Scorpio is the iceberg sign, nine-tenths lies below the water, and only one-tenth above. What is readily seen under Scorpio most likely hides the actual situation underneath. Alvin Toffler came across this aspect of the 20th Century when he first wrote "Future Shock" followed by "The Third Wave". Toffler states that "Future Shock" was his initial pessimistic response to obvious negative changes happening in the world, ie., the breakdown of family, religion, authority and so on.

His next book followed a more optimistic tone. "The Third Wave" described the hidden or less noticed developments that are both positive and constructive, and which depend upon the breakdown of outmoded institutions and codes of behaviour as described in his earlier book. This behind the scenes revolution described by Toffler aptly describes the nature of Scorpio. Scorpio, the sign of regeneration, requires destruction before construction.

Another development under Scorpio's influence is what is commonly coined `political correctness'. The replacement of implied derogatory names with euphemisms, eg., mentally retarded with intellectually disadvantage) indicates a growing hypersensitivity by minority groups. This applies to racial groups, homosexuals or any other group such as the women's movement that is perceived to stray from the previously accepted social norm. The allowance currently being made by society to prevent offending such groups of individuals indicates Scorpio's is external vulnerability, and intense hypersensitivity to anything that treads on its tail.

The important question at this point is when did developments under the Scorpio Sub-Age first appear? If early Scorpio changes can be isolated, then they can also be used as a rectification tool. The greater the accuracy of the estimated start of the Sub-Age of Scorpio, the lower the error in calculating the start of the Age of Aquarius and all the other ages and sub-ages. Being the most recent Sub-Age, its beginning should be better documented and offer greater scrutiny.

But what is to be expected in a Scorpio sub-age? The prime concepts associated with Scorpio are regeneration, transformation and metamorphosis; spiritual regeneration; death; inner strength (and external weakness); waste products from any process, which naturally includes sewage and pollution; atomic energy and bombs; almost everything associated with sex; taxes; and finally tyrants with their cruelty. These are some of the areas to be looked at in more detail in a later issue.

The most obvious change to follow the bourgeois revolution under `enlightened' Sagittarius, which saw a power shift from the (Capricorn) aristocracy to the middle class and professionals, was the Workers' Revolution that introduced the `lower' classes to benefits and prestige previously denied to them. However there is nothing about the Workers Revolution and creation of trade unions that indicates Sagittarius, and as they are not Sagittarius, they are most likely Scorpio. But how do workers and trade unions relate to Scorpio?

Traditionally, socialism is an Aquarian characteristic, Aquarian egalitarianism being a quality that socialism supposedly admires. And though the philosophy of socialism may be Aquarian, the redistribution of assets is very Scorpio. It is the redistribution of wealth, that forges the link between the workers' revolution and Scorpio. Wealth is Taurus, the opposite sign to Scorpio. The workers' opposition to the wealthy class places them, by default, in the Scorpio camp.

The 20th Century environmental conservation issue is a relatively new phenomenon. The passions unleashed, and the developing intensity of pro-conservation versus pro-development can be matched to the former passions and intensity of the workers' struggle against the bourgeois capitalists. To consume at the expense of the environment, is the question of today (and tomorrow). Who got to consume what, was yesterday's question. The workers' response to this situation was to form unions, political parties and sometimes take over governments by force. The outcome of the workers resentment at their collective lot in life, was a redistribution of wealth from the rich end of town to the working end of town. Socialism and communism did this by redistributing assets from the few to the many, either with taxes or by force. Unions accomplished a redistribution of wealth through negotiated higher wages, very often using strikes as a tool to achieve this end. To strike, a prerogative of most trade unions, is unadulterated Scorpio.

The important point to be grasped in relation to rectifying the start of this Scorpio Sub-Age, is that the development by the working class of a political identity, involving labour and trade unions and ultimately socialism and communism, commenced in the early 1800's. If any consistency is to exist in aligning astrological periods and history, then the seeds of Scorpio's wealth redistribution and growth of working class organisations must also lie in the new Scorpio Sub-Age.

The philosophical basis of communism was communicated in "Das Kapital" by Karl Marx, first published in 1867. Earlier in 1848, Karl Marx co-authored the "Communist Manifesto". Karl Marx was still a philosopher of the Sagittarian mould, his subject however was orientated towards Scorpio and obviously attuned to the sentiments of his time.

Another socialist initiative began in 1864 with the founding of the International Workers' Association. Large-scale strikes in 1869, the Paris Commune in 1871 and thereafter the establishment of socialist parties, and socialist policies, saw the reality of a new movement. If it is assumed that observable historical events are in arrears of astrological changes, then the Scorpio Sub-Age should have commenced before "Das Kapital" in 1867 but how long before? It was because the 1840's displayed observable developments in workers' and socialist movements that I decided to move the start of the Scorpio Sub-Age to around 1830.

The Scorpio Sub-Age, as distinct from the energy of the previous Sagittarian Sub-Age, is clearly seen. At he end of the 20th Century, the world is in the Scorpio Sub-Age, but still heavily reeling under the effects of the Sagittarian Sub-Age Overflow. In a nutshell, this is easily seen in the development versus conservation issue. Expansionary Sagittarian development is under threat from the environmental lobby due to the excessive pollution (Scorpio) that inevitably follows development. Sagittarius is beginning to acknowledge Scorpio's new pre-imminent role. The new name for development is now `sustainable development' which linguistically acknowledges the environment, if not always in practice.


The sub-ages from Aries to Scorpio superficially appear to fit well with history. Whenever a new sub-age appeared, corresponding changes and events also appeared. The Sub-Age of Aries with the Renaissance and the Mongol invasion. Pisces with exploration of the oceans and religious dissent. Capricorn with the tremendous advances in the sciences and the strengthening of authoritarian rulership. Sagittarius with mass production and the Enlightenment. And finally Scorpio with workers' movements and pollution.

Naturally there was a delay between an astrological sub-age and the appearance of its effects due to the Overflow Principle.


The overflow from the Piscean Age explains the confusion about precessional ages. It seems appropriate that we are already in the Aquarian Age, while, due to the Piscean Age Overflow, this is not realised, and everyone is waiting for a utopian Aquarian Age to come trundling along, preferably in our lifetime, and save us and the world from destruction. This is what delusion and illusion (Pisces) is all about!

There is no reason to believe that one age is any better than another. They are just different. All signs have positive and negative aspects, and so what can be expected in the Aquarian Age is that the positive and negative aspects of Aquarius will assert themselves and eventually replace the positive and negative aspects of Pisces.

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